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Literacy 444
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Lit-Based Reading Strategies 

Running Header: Lost and Found





Literature Based Reading Strategies for

Lost and Found by Anne Schraff

Veronica M. Johnson

Dr. Tadayuki Suzuki

Literacy 444

Spring 2008



















            Lost and Found by Anne Schraff is one in a series of fiction books for young adults.  It is the first of thirteen books from the Bluford Series that was specially designed to gain the interest young readers.  Lost and Found has captivated many students with   its suspense, realism, and the message of being a survivor.  When life goes wrong, Schraff’s main character, Darcy, takes action to save everyone she loves.  None of the book in this series are hard to read because they all take place at the fictitious Bluford High School where the students are like family.  I think this book gives a great message to young adolescents who are struggling with family, self-identity, abuse, peer pressure, and friend issues.   This book has a great main character that adolescents can relate to and admire, along with a few supporting characters that help move the story along.  There are many elements that can be used in the content area of English, including Literature and vocabulary. 

            The plot of Lost and Found revolves around shy, studious, sixteen-year-old Darcy Wills.  She has only one friend, Brisana Meeks and the tow girls spend their time criticizing other students.  But Darcy can’t tell Brisana her most intimate secrets: that she has a crush on shy Hakeem Randall, or that she still feels pain over her father’s desertion of the family five years before.  Darcy is increasingly worried about her fourteen-year-old sister, Jamee, who adored their father.  James is dating Bobby Wallace, an older and abusive boy. After Darcy confronts her sister about Bobby, Jamee breaks up with him and he hits her.  To add to her worried, Darcy realizes that a mysterious man is following her.  Darcy’s mother loves her daughters, but she is too exhausted from her work as a nurse and from caring for Darcy’s grandmother to give the girls the attention they need and to notice that trouble is brewing.  Darcy’s problems escalate when she is paired with a loud girl who Darcy considers low class, she is attacked by Bobby, her father suddenly shows up, and Jamee runs away from home. But in the end, Jamee is rescued by Darcy and their father, the family is reunited, and Darcy finds true friends which gives her optimism to look forward to life.

            The main character of Lost and Found is Darcy Wills.  Darcy is a sixteen-year-old girl who is facing a lot of life struggles.  Darcy struggles with fitting in at school because some of the girls call her a snob, even though she is just shy.  She also struggles with the fact that she likes a boy in her school but he is also shy and she doesn’t know how to approach him.  Other struggles would include: dealing with never seeing her mother due to mom’s work schedule, and being a protective big sister to Jamee.

            Lost and Found is written in first person point of view.   The entire novel is told by Darcy and centers around how she deals with all of the problems she faces while being a high school student.  These dilemmas are the same types that every teenager faces and can help them learn how to deal with them.

            The setting of Lost and Found is Bluford High School, Darcy’s home, and the wilderness when Darcy’s sister runs away from home.  These settings can be used to open discussions with my student and tie into content literacy.  My student, Joshua, is an ESL student; therefore, we will be able to discuss the differences in school and home settings between his native Mexico, and his home here in Kentucky.    

            The theme of the book is one of survival.  The main character, Darcy, is trying to learn how to survive peer pressure, being considered a snob when she is actually just very shy; surviving the disappearance of her father; surviving living in a single-parent home; surviving the disappearance of her sister when she runs away from home; and surviving the return of her father after a five-year absence.  Darcy’s sister, Jamee, also displays the theme of survival when she is abused by her boyfriend and when she has to fend for herself when she runs away.  Their mother is a survivor in that she works full-time and is raising two girls on her own.

The tone for Lost and Found is one of suspense.  Daily life is full of suspense and this book personifies the tone in that it incorporates challenges to everyone involved.  The most suspenseful parts of the book would be when Jamee is abused by her boyfriend, Darcy is followed by a mysterious man and she receives a threatening note, and wondering if Jamee will be found in time.
Literature-Based Instruction Lesson Plan 1

Name :  Veronica Johnson

Date of Lesson: 3/3/08

Title of Book:  Lost and Found  

Student Name :  Joshua Mora 

Time started: 3:15         Time ended: 5:15

Pages Read:  From  1 to 28   

Curriculum Ties: I will use the first lesson to tie in my content area of English and Allied Arts.  Since I am working with an ESL student, we will begin by discussing both the characters and setting of the novel.  Through reading the first two chapters, the reader finds out much about the main character, Darcy, as it pertains to her school and her home life, especially how she feels about her fathers’ absence.  This will provide us an opportunity to discuss families and member roles so that we are better able to get to know one another. 

Supplementary Materials: I will use the LINCs organizer, skills chapter quiz, and ORQ sheet to gauge how much Joshua understood through reading the first two chapters.  We will then discuss the questions and I can provide him with feedback on questions that he missed or did not understand.  I believe this will get him further engaged in the book and provide cues as to what he needs to look for/remember.  I will also use a PowerPoint to work on critical vocabulary and power verbs.

Introduction to lesson: To start the lesson we will look at our double entry journals.  Since the book is mainly set at home and at the high school, I will talk with Joshua about his home and school.  This will not only provide me with some background information about my student, but also allow him to open up to me about his views on school.  Through our conversations, I will be able to determine what subjects he likes and is best at, where his strengths and weaknesses lie, and what I can do to help foster his learning.

Vocabulary Instruction:  Lesson one vocabulary words are:  brassy, and testy.  For today’s lesson we will use the Previewing in Context strategy and build on prior knowledge, a strategy found in Ch. 6, page 179 of Content Literacy for Today’s Adolescents.  First, I will introduce the words to Joshua and then I will have him tell me what he thinks they mean. We will then find them in the selected reading for today’s lesson and see how they are used.  We will then compare what Joshua knew about the words and how the book uses the word.  I will demonstrate how it is important to know how the word is used in context. We will do this by looking at the clues of the context.

Comprehension Instruction:  For each lesson, I will ask Joshua to predict or hypothesis what he thinks will happen in the next chapter.  This will help Joshua retain what he has read from the previous chapter and compare his prediction to what he actually reads in the next chapter.

Content Instruction:  After discussing the setting of the book, I feel is important to introduce Joshua to the different elements in a story or novel.  To tie in to my content area of language arts, I will introduce the terms of plot, characters, theme, setting, tone, point of view, protagonist, antagonist, climax, etc. in Lost and Found.  I will use the following chart so that he can track changes throughout the book.  I will also use Reading Specific Verbs and Writing Specific Verbs, taken from Support Materials for Core Content for Assessment, Version 4.1,List of Assessment Verbs provided by the Kentucky Department of Education to help Joshua better understand what he is reading and why.  I hope to also use these words to tie into the plot, summary, etc.





























































































































Reading Specific Verbs





To receive favorably; approve/To refuse to agree to, use or believe


Link; to show or think of as related


To examine in order to note the differences


A critical review or commentary


To recognize as being different or distinct or to pick out


To devise or invent


To formulate general principles or inferences from particulars


To find by searching, examining


A rewording for the purpose of making meaning clearer


To state, tell about, or make known beforehand by special knowledge or inference


To choose or pick out from among others


The following of one thing after another in chronological, causal, or logical order


To look over rapidly but thoroughly by moving from one point to another/to look through quickly


To state the general idea in brief form


Writing Specific Verbs





To stay firm in supporting


To examine in detail


To put into action; utilize; to be appropriate, suitable or relevant


To be almost the same, estimate


To put in specific order


To print or write in capital letters


To pick out


To make clear


To join together


To give information by writing


To make right


To produce


To picture in words


To bring into being


To provide with supporting references


To take out


To hold the interest


To set up


To join or determine the worth


To lead


To recognize


To include


To supply reasons


To choose


To maintain


To put into action



Comprehension Skill Questions

A.  Vocabulary in Context

            1.  In the following excerpt, what does the word brassy mean?

                  Not Tarah!  Not that big, chunky girl with the brassy voice who squeezed

                  herself into tight skirts and wore lime green or hot pink satin tops and

                  cheap jewelry.

      a. soft and pleasant                         c. loud and bold

                  b. having a foreign accent                d. hard to understand


2.      In the following excerpt, what does the word testy mean?

[Darcy said,] “I didn’t know you drew stuff.”

“I do lots of things you don’t know about,” Tarah said in a testy voice.

                    a. irritated                                     c. amused

                    b. sad                                                       d. frightened


B.  Supporting Details

            3. The following words were said by

                 a. Darcy Wills                                              c. Aunt Charlotte

                 b. Brisana Meeks                                        d. Tarah Carson

                 “You don’t have to say it, girl.  It’s in your eyes.  You think I’m a low-life

                 and you’re something special.  Well, I got more friends than you got fingers

                 and toes together.  You got no friends, and everybody laughs at you behind

                 your back.  Know what the word on you is?  Darcy Willis give you the chills.”


4.      The following words were said by

a. Darcy Wills                                             c. Aunt Charlotte

b. Brisana Meeks                                       d. Tarah Carson

“Ms. Reed stuck me with Lori Samson. What a fool!  And she has that

terrible case of zits too!  I think Ms. Reed resents pretty girls because she’s so

plain-looking.  Can you imagine what she looked like when she was a teenager?”


5.      The following words were said by

a. Bobby Wallace                                       c. Cooper Hodden

b. Hakeem Randall                         d. Jamee Wills

“I got me a girl who’ll do anything for me, you hear what I’m sayin’? She in the store and I say, ‘Grab me that,’ and she will, ‘cause she do anything I ask, see? She crazy ‘bout me, you hear me?”



Short Answer Open-Response Questions


  1. What was Darcy’s and Jamee’s relationship like in the past? How has it changed?



  1. How does Darcy feel about Hakeem Randall?




  1. How did Jamee respond when her father first left the family? What did she do rather than believe that he had abandoned them?



  1. From overhearing Bobby Wallace talking, what does Darcy learn that Jamee has been doing?  What does Darcy worry that Jamee might become involved in later?


LINCS Vocabulary-**See attached


























Literature-Based Instruction Lesson Plan 2

  Name: Veronica Johnson

Date of Lesson:  3/4/08

Title of Book:  Lost and Found

Student Name: Joshua Mora  

Time started: 3:15 Time ended: 5:15

Pages Read:  From  29 to 57 

Curriculum Ties: I will be using a skills test I designed to see if Joshua understood the main idea for chapters 3 and 4, along with a writing assignment that requires him to give advice to a “Dear Abby” type letter.  Along with this lesson, we will also be discussing conflict and what type of conflict Darcy and her family face.  This will lead into a discussion on the different types of conflict, conflicts Joshua has faced, and conflicts his family has faced due to being in a foreign country. 

Supplementary Materials:  Today Show article, “Kids Facing Peer Pressure-How to Battle Back”, from:  This article focuses on the types of peer pressure children face and gives parents a guide on what to do and what not to do.  I feel that this is appropriate for Joshua to read so that we can discuss peer pressures that lead to family conflicts.

Introduction to lesson:  Joshua and I will once again begin by looking at our journal entries.  My entry relates to advice we get from others and give to others.  This will set up a discussion about friends, peer pressure, and how our moods affect those around us.

Vocabulary Instruction:  Today’s vocabulary words are:  sullen and lumber.  Today I will have Joshua use the dictionary to define the words.  I will use the strategy in Ch. 6, pages 181-183 of Content Literacy for Today’s Adolescents on using the dictionary.  After I aid him in using the dictionary we will then find the sentences where they are used in the book.  I will then help Joshua by demonstrating how to determine which definition is used in the sentence.  Often words have more than one definition and I will show Joshua how to use context clues to determine which definition is being used.  This is a continuation of the lesson we worked on yesterday

Comprehension Instruction:  In this lesson I will use a comprehension skill question handout to help Joshua understand conflict and supporting details of what we read.  My student and I will take turns generating questions and summarizing.  This is when we will discuss the strategies on peer pressure from the Today Show article.   After reading the article, I will summarize how our friends can influence our decisions and Joshua will summarize from the reading of Lost and Found how Darcy’s decisions were influenced by her friends.   

Kid facing peer pressure? How to battle back

Being ‘cool’ is a temptation for many kids. Dr. Gail Saltz has tactics to deal with kids’ desire to follow the crowd

By Dr. Gail Saltz contributor

updated 5:01 p.m. CT, Tues., Aug. 1, 2006

Dr. Gail Saltz

TODAY Contributor


Q: My 11-year-old daughter wants to be one of the “cool” kids. “Cool” to me looks like rudeness and bad behavior. She’ll be in class with them when school starts, and I fear they are a bad influence. How can I keep her away from them?

A: As you know, peer pressure is a big influence at this stage, which is normal. Kids goad on other kids to engage in all sorts of behavior. This can be dangerous or undesirable, like smoking, drinking, lying, shoplifting, skipping class and being mean to the uncool kids. Or it can be positive, like joining a club or sports team, or trying out for the school play.

It’s hard for a preteen to turn down a chance to join the cool group. Then again, some negative behaviors are worse than others. So prepare yourself, and your daughter, before school starts. Here are some strategies:

Encourage your daughter to have lots of activities.
When kids are idle, that’s when they hang out. Fill her time with productive activities, which gives her a social outlet and limits unstructured time for getting into trouble.

Be a source of information.
Remind your daughter that actions have consequences: bad grades, car accidents, interference by police. Tell her that you’re worried about the long term, and open a dialog: “I’ve seen this happen; what do you think?” “In this situation, what would you do?”

Don’t lecture or nag.
Too many reprimands may well drive her into the crowd you are trying to avoid or incite her to be spiteful and rebellious.

Give her coping strategies.
In order to appear cool, your daughter might find it hard to get out of situations she’s uncomfortable with. “Just say no” rarely works. Prepare her with ways of distancing herself from a tough situation while still saving face. Some examples:

  • Humor: “Beer tastes like dishwater. I’d rather have a Diet Coke.”
  • Flattery: “You are so cool — let’s shop for clothes instead of hanging out. I’d love your advice.”
  • Shifting the blame: “My mom would kill me if I smelled of cigarette smoke. It’s not worth it.”

Decide on a code word.
If your daughter can’t talk openly, the code word will signal she needs you. For example, if she calls and says, “Mother, it’s me,” instead of, “Mom, it’s me,” you will know she can give only yes-no answers or needs you to pick her up.

Bail her out.
No matter what the circumstances, bail her out without punishing her. For example, let her know that no matter how late it is or how busy you are, you will pick her up if she needs you. It will both save her from potentially difficult situations and improve the bond between you. And don’t complain when she does it. This is what she should be doing. Give her positive reinforcement — “I’m glad you called instead of riding with a drunk driver and ending up in a ditch.”

Know her friends.
Maybe the kids you are worrying about are actually terrific. Sometimes that green hair tops a very sweet person. But if they are a fast crowd, you are on tougher ground. Make a point to meet their parents. If you aren't comfortable with their values, be alert to subtle opportunities to point out long-term consequences:

“I see that Sally smokes, which isn’t surprising because her mom smokes. And with that terrible cough, I’d be worried about lung cancer.” Or “Sally seems to drink a lot. Her parents do, too, and it seems they are having trouble holding down jobs because of that.”

The idea is to plant the idea in her head that there are repercussions for short-term choices.

Pick your battles.
If you fight over every hairstyle and piercing, your daughter will tune you out when it comes to the big stuff.  Kids this age need to express themselves and rebel, so if your daughter isn’t doing anything harmful in the long run, let it go. If she dyes her hair blue but doesn’t take drugs, you are doing a pretty good job.

Dr. Gail’s Bottom Line:  If your daughter does have less-than-desirable friends, there are ways to minimize their negative influence.

Dr. Gail Saltz is a psychiatrist with New York Presbyterian Hospital and a regular contributor to “Today.” Her new book, “Becoming Real: Overcoming the Stories We Tell Ourselves That Hold Us Back,” was recently published by Riverhead Books. For more information, you can visit her Web site,


Main Idea


1.      The main idea of the excerpt below is that

a.   Darcy dreads the long bus trip

b.      The trip by car takes less than half an hour

c.       The trip involves changes buses.

Darcy dreaded the long bus trip home.  By car, the trip took about twenty-five minutes.  But by the time she changed buses, the trip home would take an hour and a half.


2.   The main idea of the excerpt below is that

      a.  Darcy, Tarah, and Cooper have started off on the wrong foot with each other.

      b.  Darcy has not been able to get enough pictures and notes.

      c.  it has turned out to be an awful day

What an awful day this had turned out to be!  She had tried to make the best of Tarah as a project partner.  She had tried to be nice to her and Cooper.  Look what happened!  She had planned to take home loads of pictures and a notebook full of good information.  All she had were a few pictures and hardly any notes.  Worse yet, that stranger seemed to threaten her. 


Writing Assignment


Pretend you are an advice columnist, like Dear Ay or Ann Landers.  You’ve received the following letter.  Write a reply to the letter, giving the best advice you can.


            Dear Abby,


                 My best friend-really my only friend-is a girl named Brisana.  We’ve known

            each other for years.  Mostly what we do together is laugh at other kids in our

            school and talk about what losers they are.  This makes me feel uncomfortable.

            Lately I’m becoming friends with some of the kids who Brisana and I used to call

losers.  When Brisana seems me talking with them, she tells me I’m going to end

            up a loser just like them.  I don’t want to lose Brisana’s friendship, but I’d like to

            get to know some other people, too.  What do you think I should do?




Discussion Question


Brisana and Darcy rated their classmates on a scale of one to ten.  Think about this two-part question:

1.      In what ways do students classify each other at your school?  Do students rank

each other according to interests, looks, activities, grades, family income, way of dressing, or something else?

2.      Why do high school students tend to classify one another at all?  What purpose does such classification serve?


Vocabulary Words


Sullen-Your definition:



            Dictionary definition:



            How was it used in the novel?



            Write your own sentence using the word:



Lumber-Your definition:



              Dictionary definition:



              How was it used in the novel?



              Write your own sentence using the word:








Literature-Based Instruction Lesson Plan 3

Name: Veronica Johnson 

Date of Lesson: 03/5/08

Title of Book: Lost and Found

Student Name: Joshua Mora 

Time started: 3:15   Time ended: 5:15

Pages Read:  From 58 to 84 

Curriculum Ties: The topic for today’s discussion will be on the plot of the novel.  Joshua and I will discuss what a plot is and I will look for an understanding that the plot is a sequence of events that move the story and give a reason why things happen throughout the book. 

Supplementary Materials:  The handout provided will help Joshua understand how every novel has a plot, and what a plot consists of.  We will discuss the plot of other stories he has read and how plots move the story.  Joshua should be able to pick out the main idea of each chapter and how this ties into the plot.

Introduction to lesson: For today’s lesson, my student and I will start by discussing our journal entries. I will use several quotes for Joshua to contemplate.  I want him to see how they pertain to the reading for Chapters 5 and 6, and tie into the plot of the story, as well as provide critical thinking on my students’ behalf. 

Vocabulary Instruction:  The vocabulary words for this lesson are as follows:  agitated and dazed.  I will use the possible sentence strategy from Chapter 6, pages 180-181 of Content Literacy for Today’s Adolescents with my student.  I will have Joshua write a possible sentence for each word. We will then look at the passage in the book and discuss how it was used.  Joshua will write new sentence with each word and we will discuss the how he used the word, making sure he has a clear understanding of how certain words can mean a variety of things, when to use each word, and how to correctly use each word.   Since Joshua is an ESL student, he has a hard time understanding how one word can mean different things.  This exercise will hopefully help Joshua understand this concept and be able to expand his vocabulary.

Comprehension Instruction: Vocabulary is hard for Joshua to learn; therefore, I will use a LINCS Vocabulary chart to help his vocabulary retention.  This chart provides the word, a reminding word, how it LINCS to the story, a LINCing picture, and a definition.  We will also go back and insert our previous vocabulary words into this chart. 

Content Instruction:  In this lesson I will use information from Chapter 10, pages 348-349 of Content Literacy for Today’s Adolescents to look at different pictures that will tie into the plot, setting, and tone/mood of the book.  This will help my student gain more insight on what authors and artists are trying to convey through their work.  In an effort to determine whether my student understands the material that I am covering, I will provide a flashcard activity by holding up different pictures and asking Joshua the suggested mood, or tone, for the particular picture.  All of the pictures were found on the internet at .    









Write two sentences using the vocabulary words agitated and dazed.

1.      _________________________________________________________


2.      _________________________________________________________



Plot-Discuss how the following questions help move the plot along.

How does Jamee say her face got bruised? What does Darcy think really happened?


Who is the man in the silver Toyota? When Darcy finds out how it is, what does she tell the police to tell him?


What do Cooper and his friends do when they see Bobby attacking Darcy?

Literature-Based Instruction Lesson Plan 4

Name: Veronica Johnson

Date of Lesson:  03/6/08

Title of Book:  Lost and Found 

Student Name: Joshua Mora 

Time started: 3:15 Time ended: 5:15

Pages Read:  From 85  to 112

Curriculum Ties: Lost and Found finds Darcy struggling with her fathers’ reappearance in her life after a five-year absence, her sister being abused by her boyfriend when she breaks up with him, and subsequently her sister running away from home.  We will work on the theme of the story, survival, and how it relates to our everyday lives. 

Supplementary Materials:  I will use a handout with a variety of questions used to determine Joshua’s comprehension of what we have read thus far.  This will prepare him for the final two chapters of our book and how we he has comprehended the materials.  The questions on the handout will allow Joshua to predict possible conclusions for the novel.

Introduction to lesson: As with each lesson Joshua and I will begin instruction with our journals.  From my quote in my journal the student and I should be able to see how things that we all go through can affect others around us.    

Vocabulary Instruction: The vocabulary words for this lesson are: squirm and ecstatic. I will once again teach these words in context as our text suggest, but this time I will only do one word with Joshua and I will observe him and facilitate as he uses the context to decipher the meaning of the words.  Previewing in context is a strategy from Chapter 6, page 179-180 of Content Literacy for Today’s Adolescents, which I used in an earlier lesson.  This will show me if he is more familiar and confident with this strategy. 

Comprehension Instruction:  For comprehension instruction, I will use a process called, What, So What, Now What.  This process will help my student make predictions and inferences as to what he has read thus far and what he thinks the outcome will be. After reading the material, I will give my student the handout and ask him to complete it, and then we will go over it together in great detail.   





Ecstatic:  My sentence-I am ecstatic at the thought of graduating from college.  My definition:  happy, elated

Squirm:  Student sentence- _______________________________________ Student definition: 



We have determined that the theme of our novel is survival.  From what we have read, thus far, fill in the blanks for the following:

            Observing and Recalling

         What do you remember about how Jamee felt when her father left?

         What did their mother do to provide for her family?

Relationships, Summarizing, Organizing, and Retelling

         Tell me in your own words how Darcy and Brisana treated others.

         What happened to cause Darcy to rethink her views about her classmates?

         What things/events lead up to her change of mind?


Predicting, Inferring, and Anticipating

         What do you think are some of the reasons/causes that their dad returned?

         What feeling do you think made Jamee act as she did after her boyfriend abused her and her father returned?

         Judging from the first 8 chapters, what do you think is going to happen?  How will the book end?


What?  So What? Now What?

What have I learned?

So What?


Now What?




Literature-Based Instruction Lesson Plan 5

Name: Veronica Johnson 

Date of Lesson: 03/10/08

Title of Book: Lost and Found

Student Name: Joshua Mora

Time started: 3:15 Time ended: 5:15

Pages Read:  From  113  to 133 (end of book)   

Curriculum Ties: Today I will use writing strategies to connect my language arts content. It is important that Joshua know how to summarize the importance of the overall theme of this book.  I will ask Joshua to use his entry journal today so that he can write down any final questions that he may have about the novel.  We will go over any of the questions in an oral discussion.

Supplementary Materials: Today’s final lesson, I will go over the previous handouts, worksheets, our double-entry journals, etc. that we have been using and conclude with a final worksheet on conclusions to gauge Joshua’s comprehension and retention of the novel.

Introduction to lesson:  I will begin this final lesson with an activity to check for prior knowledge, or learning.  We will begin by going over the study guide that he completed in the last session.  We will then look at our double entry journal and I will ask Joshua to predict what he believes will be the outcome of the story.  After finishing the novel, we will see if his prediction is correct and then complete the handouts I have provided. 

Vocabulary Instruction:  The words for today’s reading are:  anguished and manic.  To help Joshua better understand the vocabulary words, I will use the contextual analysis technique that I used in a previous lesson, to help him better understand the meanings of these unfamiliar words.  We will read the pages and when we come across a key word, we will pause, write the word down, and then determine an alternative meaning for the word.  I will also inform Joshua that he is to write down any other words in which he does not understand and we will discuss them as they appear in the text.

Comprehension Instruction:  I will fulfill this aspect of the lesson through the use of a handout.  It will consist of questions about the events which led up to the climax of the story.  Joshua is to determine both the events and the climax, writing down the conclusion of the story in his own words.  All of this will take place after the reading is complete.  While discussing the events that take place in the story, we will also be able to discuss different aspects of the story such as self-image, abuse, peer pressure, etc.  We will also use the process guide and question-answer techniques to further understand the novel. 

Content Instruction:  I am going to have Joshua complete a follow-up activity that will allow him to work on his writing skills by discussing three of Darcy’s friends and adding supporting details on what makes them a good friend. The Guided Paragraph assignment will allow Joshua to review the book and draw his own conclusions.





Student definition:

Dictionary definition:


Student sentence:




Student definition:

Dictionary definition:


Student sentence:





You can conclude from the following excerpt that

a.      Darcy’s father has fallen on hard times

b.      Darcy’s father left his family because he wanted to live in his car

c.      Darcy’s father has piled all this stuff in his car in order to make Darcy feel sorry for him


[Darcy] and Hakeem squeezed into the front seat of her father’s car.  Judging by the clutter on the back seat, he had been living there.  Shirts and pants were piled next to stuffed bags and boxes.


What can you conclude from the fact that Jamee might “go to the last place where she felt truly happy”?

a.       someone would surely look for her there

b.       she might feel happy again there

c.        She could find a cabin there to stay in

“…Grandma was talking about the mountains just now and how Jamee was so happy there.  I think maybe she’d go to the last place where she felt truly happy,” Darcy explained.




Guided Paragraph Assignment


Write a paragraph in which you provide supporting evidence to back up the following.


1.  Decide on which three characters show themselves to be Darcy’s friends.  Write their names: _________________, __________________,   ___________________


2.  Freewrite for five minutes about each friend.  Use the book to gain more information to support your details.


3. Write a rough draft of your paragraph.  Use the information below to organize your paragraph.


Three Good Friends


In the course of the book, three people prove themselves to be Darcy’s friends.  One character who behaves as a good friend is _____________.  (Add supporting details)


A second person who acts as a friend for Darcy is _________________.  (Add supporting details)


A final character who turns out to be a good friend for Darcy is __________________.  (Add supporting details)


Hint:  Be sure to use transitions to help organize your paragraph.  Transitions include such words such as one, second, next, and finally.  Transitions are word signals that make clear to the reader each new part of your paragraph.
















Journal Entry #1

Date: 3/3/08

Time: 3:15-5:15

Place: Russellville High School Library

Chapters 1-2



Darcy Wills winded at the loud rap music coming from her sister’s room.

My rhymes were rockin’

MC’s were droppin’

People shoutin’ and hip-hoppin’

Step to me and you’ll be inferior

‘Cause I’m your lyrical superior.  (pg.1)

Darcy went to Grandma’s room.  The darkened room smelled of lilac perfume, Grandma’s favorite…

Darcy headed down the street toward Bluford High School.  It was not a terrible neighborhood they lived in; it just was not good.  Many front yards were not cared for.  Debris-fast food wrappers, plastic bags, old newspapers-blew around and piled against fences and curbs.  Darcy hated that.  Sometimes she and other kids from school spent Saturday mornings cleaning up, but it seemed a losing battle.  Now, as she walked, she tried to focus on small spots of beauty along the way.  Mrs. Walker’s pink and white roses bobbed proudly in the morning breeze.  The Hustons’ rock garden was carefully designed around a wooden windmill. (p.4)


Since the book begins in the family apartment and then moves from the neighborhood to the high school, I used these quotes to demonstrate and show the setting, as well as the atmosphere.


Darcy felt as if her teeth were glued to her tongue.  She fumbled in her bag for her outline of the project.  It all seemed like a horrible joke now.  She and Tarah Carson standing knee-deep in the muck of a tidal pool!  (p.8)


I believe the student will read and question what a tidal pool is and this will peak his interest to learn.  I think my student, Joshua, will also wonder about the science project and what kinds of things live in the tidal pools. 


Journal Entry #2

Date:  3/4/08

Time:  3:15-5:15

Place:  Russellville High School Library

Chapters 3-4



“Give me a break, Darcy!  Don’t tell me you like them?  I mean, it’s just like my father says, ‘If you lie down with dogs, you’ll get up with fleas.’  Those two are low class.  I don’t know what my parents would even do if I brought home trash like Tarah Carson.” (p. 53)


When first reading this passage I figured that Joshua would ask what the quote ‘If you lie down with dogs, you’ll get up with fleas’ means.  With the language and cultural barrier, there are a lot of words and sayings that he doesn’t understand.  This was an excellent chapter to discuss friends, peer pressure, advice, and how our moods affect others.  This was the perfect time to bring in the report from pertaining to talking to your children about peer pressure. 


Journal Entry #3

Date: 3/5/08

Time:  3:15-5:12

Place: Russellville High School Library

Chapters 5-6


“Let bygones be bygones,” Grandma always used to say.  “Carrying grudges is like carrying an open flame in your pocket.  It’s gonna burn you before it burns anybody else.”  (p. 59)


From reading the leading passages, Joshua and I were able to discuss “old sayings” and what they really meant.  By doing this, Joshua is learning not to take everything that is said to his so literally.  With the language barrier, he would normally read this passage, take it literally, and then he would be confused throughout the remainder of the book. 


Journal Entry #4

Date:  3/6/08

Time:  3:15-5:15

Place: Russellville High School Library

Chapters 7-8


Darcy had been ashamed to talk about her vanished father.  Nothing truly awful ever happened in Brisana’s life.  It happened only among the “low-life” people.  In their world, fathers ran away, people drank too much, there was poverty.  Darcy had hidden her pain from Brisana, so Brisana would not think she was a “low-life” too.  But Darcy ached to talk, really talk with a friend about how bad she felt (p. 89)


From this passage Joshua and I are better able to learn how our actions, and the actions of those around us, can affect a lot of lives. 


Journal Enry#5

Date: 3/10/08

Time: 3:15-5:15

Place: Russellville High School Library

Chapters 9-10


Sunday was rainy and cold.  The chilly wind from the night before brought in a thick dark blanket of clouds.  By midday, the sky looked like doom, as if it had never been blue and would never be blue again.  Darcy could not remember a time in her life when she had ever been so depressed, except for when her father had left.  But even then there was anger mixed with grief.  Now there was only sorrow and relentless fear.  She could not find it within herself to blame Jamee for what she had done.  Jamee was hurt, and in her own mind it must have seemed there was nothing to do but try to outrun the pain. (p.125)


This quote pertains to the multiple dilemmas Darcy has faced and continues to face.  Joshua and I will discuss what has happened so far and he will predict what he believes the outcome of the book will be. We will read surrounding passages to help us as we conclude this book. 




Brozo, W.G., & Simpson, M.L. (2007). Content literacy for today’s adolescents: Honoring diversity and building competence (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-228671-8


Allen, J. (2004).  Tools for teaching for content literacy.  Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN-10: 1571103805, ISBN-13: 978-1571103802


Strong, Richard W. (2007). Lessons from the Thoughtful Classroom. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from Lessons from the Thoughtful Classroom Web site:


Saltz, Dr. Gail (August 1, 2006). Kids facing peer pressure? How to battle back., Retrieved February 15, 2008, from
















Reflection on Field Experience Using Lost and Found                      by Anne Schraff


            My student, Joshua, and I met the following dates and times:  March 3, 3:15-5:15, March 4, 3:15-5:15, March 5, 3:15-5:15, March 6, 3:15-5:15, and March 10, 3:15-5:15, which totals ten hours of field experience. 

            Joshua is a fourteen-year-old freshman at Russellville High School.  He has been attending public school in the United States for the past four years, with the first three being at an elementary school in Springfield, TN.  Before that, Joshua attended school in his native Mexico.  Joshua stated that when he graduates high school he would like to return to Mexico for college. 

Joshua’s number one strength in literacy is that he enjoys the English language and has a willingness and desire to learn.  As is evident in the attached copies of his double-entry journal, his English, especially in writing, is still not as developed as most students his age.  In addition to this, his vocabulary is limited because English is a second language for him and he has a hard time understanding how some of our words can have several different meanings.  Slang has also been very hard for him to comprehend.  Even though I incorporated two vocabulary words for each lesson, there were a lot of times the Joshua would stop and ask me about a particular word.  This led to some wonderful discussions about words, old sayings that are passed on from generation to generation, and slang because he did not understand words used in our book, such as “ain’t”.  Joshua doesn’t mind reading out loud, when asked, but will not volunteer to do so because he is a slow reader and still struggles with pronunciation.  I think that Joshua, through our field experience, began to open up to me while discussing Lost and Found because we were able to talk about my extensive study of Spanish in middle school, high school, and college.  We talked about how both languages are difficult to understand and even harder to learn.  We both commented on the fact that the other talks very fast; therefore, that makes it even harder for us to understand each other.  Joshua stated that sometimes his teachers speak to fast and that is why he feels his grades are not as good as they could be.  This fact made me learn to slow down how fast I read, and to have more patience when he was reading.  Due to this, I believe that he enjoyed our lessons and feels a little more comfortable with his reading abilities.  I believe he is below average on his reading level for his age range due to the language barrier, but he likes to be challenged so that he can learn; therefore, I tried to incorporate lessons that would challenge his thinking.  A teacher of Joshua’s would need to be understanding of the language barrier and willing to give further explanations for every lesson.  This may pose a problem but there are resources in most schools for ESL students.

            Lost and Found was a wonderful book to teach comprehension strategies and content material in Language Arts.  Peer pressure and race are a big part of this book; therefore, giving a wide variety of vocabulary words to work with, in addition to the slang. 

            As for instructional changes while using this book again for teaching, I would probably incorporate even more of the vocabulary words, provide a wider range of worksheets to show how the vocabulary words can be used in a sentence, synonyms, definitions, etc., and use more activities to involve students in group discussions.

            I feel that I met the needs of my student by keeping the lessons interesting, adding supplemental literature to the lesson plans, and keeping him engaged in thought-provoking discussions about nationalities, race, peer pressure, and real-life situations.  I believe Joshua became more confident in his responses to the comprehension activities by being able to talk them out first.  I hope that he will be able to use the lessons he has learned to help him be more tolerant with people that are different and will someday take these lessons back with him to Mexico.





JOURNAL ENTRY #4    3/6/08





















1. Term


3. Reminding Word

5. LINCing Picture

2. Definition


1. Term


3. Reminding Word

4. LINCing Story

5. LINCing Picture

2. Definition

4. LINCing Story